Emperor Jean-Jacques Dessalines is assassinated. During a meeting at a cathedral in Port-au-Prince, the Constituent Assembly creates a new constitution and appoints Henri Christophe to a four-year term as President of the Republic of Haiti
Civil war racks the country, which divides into the northern kingdom of Henri Christophe and the southern republic governed by Alexandre Pétion. Faced with a rebellion by his own army, Christophe commits suicide, paving the way for Jean-Pierre Boyer to reunify the country and become President of the entire republic in 1820.
President Boyer invades Santo Domingo following its declaration of independence from Spain. The entire island is now controlled by Haiti until 1844.
Haitian President Boyer signs an agreement with France for recognition in exchange of an indemnity of 150 million francs. Haiti ultimately pays 90 million francs to France (equivalent to 21 billion US dollars in today’s currency). This resulted in bankruptcy of Haiti and decades of French control of Haitian finances.
France and Britain begin gunboat diplomacy tactics in relation to Haiti to ensure that foreign interests were being honored by Haiti. Spain, Germany and the US would later use similar tactics.
France recognizes Haitian independence in exchange for a financial indemnity of 150 million francs. Most nations including the United States shunned Haiti for almost forty years, fearful that its example could stir unrest there and in other slave holding countries. Over the next few decades Haiti is forced to take out loans of 70 million francs to repay the indemnity and gain international recognition.
7 May An earthquake strikes northern Haiti, destroying the city of Cap-Haïtien.
28 February The Dominican Republic declares its independence from Haiti.
28 March Haiti and the Vatican sign an agreement which divides Haiti into five dioceses.
Under Abraham Lincoln, the US recognizes Haiti.The United States finally grants Haiti diplomatic recognition sending Frederick Douglass as its Consular Minister.
Port-au-Prince and Haiti are dedicated to Our Lady of Perpetual Help during a mass in Bel Air.